Wednesday, November 18, 2020

Andrew Jackson Quiz - 11/19/20 - American History I

American History I study help

u3-24:Jacksonian Democracy

u3-25: King Andrew Jackson

Unit 3 Study Guide -

Jacksonian Democracy
  • Most men could vote by 1820 (universal suffrage)

    • the “common man” became active in politics

    • Election of 1824

      • Andrew Jackson wins the popular vote (doesn’t matter)

        • popular vote = most votes

          • Presidential candidates must win the... 

            • electoral college

              • each state is worth a set amount of points based on population (same number of members in the House of Representatives)

              • each state also get 2 points for their senators

              • The candidate that wins the majority of electoral points (51%) is president

              • today... you need 270 pts to win

                • e.g. California is worth 55 pts and Montana is worth 3 pts

                  • Jackson got the most votes, but it doesn't matter. It’s about electoral points, and Jackson did not win 51% of the points.

      • The election and the campaign (process of running for president) is dirty!

        • in fact... most elections after Washington have featured dirty name calling and smear campaigns

          • instead of talking about how great you are ► talk about how bad your opponent is!

      • John Quincy Adams becomes the 6th president 

        • He wins the election due to a corrupt bargain

          • plan:

            • If he promises to build highways, canals, a national university and advance science through gov’t funding

              • Then, congress will allow John Quincy Adams to become president

                • none of this happened

  • Gibbons v. Ogden 1824

    • US government shuts down a monopoly

      • monopoly: 

        • when one business controls all of one product

          • no competition

          • the business can name their own price ► if you don’t pay their price, you don’t get the product

            • Bad for consumers (the people)

            • Great for business

      • New York gives Mr. Ogden a license that grants him total control of the waterways near New York

        • If you want to ship goods into New York, then you can only hire Mr. Ogden

          • If you want to ship your goods, then you’ll pay whatever price he demands

            • Mr. Gibbons sues Mr. Ogden in the Supreme Court

              • Gibbons wins and is allowed to ship goods into New York as well

                • This creates competition between the two ships

                  • This will lead to lower prices for consumers

    • National Gov’t is more powerful than the State Gov’t (USA > NY)

  • “tariff of abominations” (southern nickname)

    • Tariff of 1828

      • Protected New England manufacturers

        • Force Americans to buy from American businesses, not europe

          • If you buy goods from Europe ► pay the tariff

            • buy from america ► cheaper ► no tariff

      • South relied on trading with European Nations

        • South sold cotton to Europe

          • Tariff hurts them 

      • Unfair to the South

        • It’s a lose-lose

          • either pay the Tariff to import goods from Europe

          • or pay the high shipping costs of buying goods from the North

            • nothing is made in the south

      • John C. Calhoun

        • Former South Carolina Senator (south)

        • The southern states should nullify the law (void, or throw it out)

          • Calhoun was Vice President

            • during this time VP ran separate from President

              • They were often enemies

      • To Be Continued...

End PowerPoint u3-24

  • King Andrew Jackson I

    • elected President in 1828

    • Jackson did not believe the gov’t should be involved in economics

      • he killed the 2nd Nat’l Bank of America

        • vetoed (vote no) a bill to renew the bank

        • he took all of the money out on the Nat’l Bank and gave to various state banks

          • “pet banks” the President Jackson could control

    • Jackson also blamed paper money for ruining in the economy

      • paper money fluctuates in value and can be worthless (inflation)

        • he issued an executive order (presidential rule):

          • the purchase of Federal Land must be done with specie (coins)

            •  Gold, and silver do not suffer from inflation

              • you can’t print new money

                • you can’t make new Gold

                  • Supply doesn’t go up quickly

            • Problem: No one can buy anything

              • People can’t buy land with their paper money

              • People don’t have gold & silver (it’s rare)

            • Panic of 1837

              • caused by the gov’t getting involved in the economy (irony)

    • Tariffs ...again

      • Nullification Crisis

        • Southern states want to ignore Tariff & threaten secession

          • secession

            • leaving the nation (start a new country in the south)

        • Northern Senator Daniel Webster accused the south of Treason

          • President Jackson (southerner) supports the Tariff of 1832

            • brought the tariff price down from 45% to 35%

              • South not happy

              • Threaten to secede if Jackson attempts to collect the duty (tax money) via force

                • Jackson asked congress to use force

                  • President must have the legislative branch’s approval to declare war

                  • Before war breaks out... Henry Clay reaches another compromise 

                  • Federal Gov’t will lower the tariff to a smaller amount

    • Jackson is notorious (famous for being bad) for abusing his federal power as President

      • Still a southerner that supported states’ rights ► limited federal gov’t power by vetoing federal laws

        • Vetoed more federal laws than all 6 of the previous presidents combined

    • Spoils System

      • support Jackson ► help him get elected

        • get a gov’t job in return

          • USA uses this system today

    • Trail of Tears

      • Indian Removal Act (1830)

        • Signed by President Jackson

          • forcefully removed 100,000 american indians from the southeast (NC, SC, Georgia, and Tennessee)

            • Cherokee nation sued and won in the Supreme Court

              • President Jackson ignored the Supreme court

                • Forced the american indians to move to Oklahoma

                  • 4,000 died on The Trail of Tears

                  • Checks and Balances?

                  • Was Andrew Jackson a King?

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